Types of Human Trafficking Offenses

Human Trafficking Charges in Arizona

Human trafficking is a term that covers a range of illegal activities. At its heart, human trafficking is all about taking advantage of people, forcing them to do things against their will. This can take many forms, from making people work without pay to forcing them into illegal activities such as sex work. And it's not something that happens in far-off places – it's a crime here in Arizona too.


In this article, we will dig into the details of human trafficking. We'll explain what the term means and explore some of the different types of crimes under this umbrella.

Shocking but true, according to the National Human Trafficking Hotline, Arizona is among the states with the highest reported cases of human trafficking. This makes it even more important to understand what constitutes human trafficking.

sex trafficking

An Overview of Human Trafficking

Human trafficking, as it's referenced in the United States Code, Section 7102 of Title 22, is a term that encompasses various types of offenses. It primarily involves exploiting individuals through force or fraud for labor or commercial sex acts.


Human trafficking might sound straightforward but it refers to complex and severe offenses. Each form of trafficking - sex trafficking, peonage, involuntary servitude, or forced labor - has unique aspects, but all revolve around the central theme of exploitation.


Understanding each of these offenses is essential for anyone who is involved or potentially involved in these activities. A comprehensive understanding of the term and its components can provide a more accurate picture of the legal implications of human trafficking.

Sex Trafficking

Sex trafficking is perhaps one of the most widely recognized facets of human trafficking. As outlined by Title 18 U.S.C. § 1591, sex trafficking involves the exploitation of individuals through force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of commercial sex acts. In cases where the victim is under 18, the element of force, fraud, or coercion does not need to be present for the act to be considered sex trafficking.


Peonage, or debt bondage, is another form of human trafficking. As Title 18 U.S.C. § 1581 stipulated, peonage involves forcing someone to work off debt in harsh and exploitative conditions. 


Peonage is an illegal practice yet remains a pervasive form of exploitation across the globe. Victims often find themselves in precarious situations, entrapped by their financial circumstances and exploited by those willing to capitalize on their vulnerability.

Involuntary Servitude

Involuntary servitude, as defined by Title 18 U.S.C. § 1584, is a form of human trafficking that involves forcing a person to work under threat of physical or legal harm. Essentially, it's a modern form of slavery where individuals are subjected to conditions of servitude against their will.


These situations often arise when individuals, desperate for work or a better life, are tricked or coerced into servitude. Escaping these conditions is challenging, with victims often facing physical and psychological barriers to freedom.

Forced Labor

Forced labor, governed by Title 18 U.S.C. § 1589, is a form of human trafficking involving coercion, threat, or deception to exploit a person for labor or services. 


If an individual knowingly secures or offers the services or labor of another person through any or a combination of the following methods—


  1. Utilizing force, making threats of force, physically restraining, or threatening physical restraint against the person or another individual;
  2. Implementing serious harm or making threats of severe harm to the person or another individual;
  3. Engaging in or threatening to misuse the law or legal process;
  4. Employing any strategy, plan, or pattern to make the person believe that non-compliance with the labor or services would result in severe harm or physical restraint to them or another individual.

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human trafficking

Trafficking Concerning Peonage, Involuntary Servitude, or Forced Labor: An In-Depth Understanding

These various forms of human trafficking aren't standalone crimes - they often intersect and intertwine in complex ways, as reflected in Title 18 U.S.C. § 1590.


This legislation acknowledges the interrelated nature of peonage, involuntary servitude, and forced labor, stating that trafficking individuals for these purposes is illegal.

Steps to Take When Wrongly Accused of Human Trafficking

If you've been wrongly accused of human trafficking, acting promptly and appropriately is crucial to protect your rights and interests. 


Here are a few steps you should take:

  • 1

    Don't Engage in Discussions Without Legal Representation

    Your first action should be to refrain from engaging in conversations or discussions about the charges without legal representation. Even innocently, The information you provide could be used against you in court. Remember, you have the right to remain silent under the Fifth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

  • 2

    Hire a Qualified Federal Criminal Defense Attorney

    Next, immediately secure the services of a federal criminal defense attorney with expertise in human trafficking cases. Not every lawyer will have experience with such cases, so choosing one who does is essential. For instance, a seasoned attorney from the Kolsrud Law Office will have an in-depth understanding of the complexities of the law surrounding human trafficking and can provide the specialized legal support you need.

  • 3

    Gather All Relevant Information and Evidence

    Your lawyer will help you compile all the necessary information and evidence for your defense. This can include personal documents, correspondence, or any other data pertinent to the case. It's essential to be as thorough as possible and share all information with your attorney.

  • 4

    Plan Your Legal Strategy

    Your attorney will then work with you to devise a comprehensive legal strategy. This could involve challenging the credibility of the prosecution's evidence, questioning the legality of the investigations leading to your arrest, or offering evidence to support your innocence.

  • 5

    Prepare for Court Proceedings

    Finally, you'll need to prepare for court. This involves understanding the court process, knowing what to expect, and being mentally and emotionally ready for the challenges ahead. Your lawyer will guide you through this process, helping you understand your rights and responsibilities and ensuring you're as prepared as possible.

It's a common misperception that you can't be held legally responsible if you don't know about the drugs. Unfortunately, the law doesn't always see it that way. In many cases, ignorance doesn't necessarily absolve one from liability.


Under federal law, the doctrine of "willful blindness" or "conscious avoidance" can come into play. This legal principle suggests that a defendant can't escape conviction by deliberately avoiding confirmation of suspicions that would lead to knowledge of a fact, such as the presence of drugs. If it can be proven that you deliberately avoided learning about illicit drugs, it could potentially be just as damning as knowing about them.


This delicate legal ground is where an experienced federal criminal defense attorney from the Kolsrud Law Office can make a difference. The ability to effectively counter the concept of "willful blindness" could potentially make or break your defense.

trafficking defense attorney

The Kolsrud Law Office Is Here to Build Your Defense

If faced with such charges, you have a right to a fair trial under federal laws and the Arizona Revised Statutes. The prosecution has the burden of proof, meaning they must demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that you committed the alleged crimes.


At Kolsrud Law Office, our expert federal criminal defense attorneys are committed to defending your rights, offering comprehensive legal services tailored to each individual's unique circumstances. We strive to provide vigorous and intelligent defense, challenging the prosecution's case at every turn and upholding the due process of law.

An award-winning criminal defense attorney Since 2006

Why Choose Josh Kolsrud

With over 100 trials to his name, and years of experience as a state and federal prosecutor, Josh understands the law, the legal process, and your rights. Josh is also committed to representing every client with utmost integrity and dedication



Josh has prosecuted major crimes on the state and federal level, led a successful anti-human sex trafficking operation that saved lives, and argued before countless juries and justices for his clients



Josh is an expert in both Arizona and federal criminal law, and is ready to put that expertise to work for you.



As a prosecutor, Josh saw far too many defendants lose their livelihood due to poor representation. Josh will always give every client his complete attention and effort

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